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   2022| July-September  | Volume 6 | Issue 3  
    Online since March 9, 2023

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Interventional pulmonology: The new horizon in pediatric pulmonology
Mohammad Ashkan Moslehi
July-September 2022, 6(3):63-64
  881 67 -
Assessment of bacteriological profile and outcome of empyema thoracis of hospitalized children: A single center experience
Sweta Sadani, Mrinalini Das
July-September 2022, 6(3):47-53
Background: Empyema is often associated with the consequence of infection including pneumonia, tuberculosis, or lung abscess. This study was conducted to assess the clinico-etiological profile and outcomes of empyema thoracis cases. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective hospital-based observational study conducted from July 2019 to June 2020 which included patients of either sex, aged between 2 months to ≤12 years, with empyema thoracis confirmed by radiological evidence of pleural fluid. Clinico-etiological details were collected and presented using appropriate statistics. Results: A total of 42 patients were included in the study, of which 35.7% were aged between 4 and 7.99 years and 27 patients (64.3%) were male. Twenty (47.6%) patients had a history of cough for 7–14 days while eight had cough for >14 days; however, a total of 29 (87.9%) patients had breathing difficulty for ≤7 days. Chest pain was observed in 16.7% of patients. Chest X-ray showed that right side pleural effusion was more commonly affected than the left pleural effusion (69.0% vs. 31.0%). The most common micro-organism pleural fluid culture was Staphylococcus aureus (n = 8; 20.5%). The majority of patients with empyema thoracis had elevated levels of leukocytes (>11,000 cumm) and CRP levels (>10 mg/dL) [92.9% and 97.6%, respectively]. Conclusion: The present study showed that most of the children presented at the age of 4–7.99 years with a male predominance. S. aureus was the major organism associated with pediatric empyema in this region.
  436 72 -
Aroonwan Preutthipan
July-September 2022, 6(3):45-46
  358 56 -
Pediatric anaphylaxis management in schools: Current issues and challenges in Asia and Hong Kong. A scoping review
Shaun Chad Lee
July-September 2022, 6(3):54-62
Hong Kong has the highest prevalence of food allergies compared with Mainland China, Russia, and India. There has been a twofold increase in anaphylaxis incidence between 2009 and 2019, of which 20% occur in day-care and school settings. A scoping systemic search was performed with the aim of reviewing existing literature in the Asia-Pacific region regarding food allergy management in the school setting. Current loopholes and inadequacies on governmental policy regarding school anaphylaxis management were explored. 28 articles from MEDLINE-OVID were compared with a PRISMA scoping review published in 2022 having similar search terms but focusing on Western countries. Furthermore, current loopholes and inadequacies on governmental policy regarding school anaphylaxis management in Hong Kong were explored. An Internet search was later conducted to supplement the information on governmental policies for school anaphylaxis management. Most publications identified focused on assessing food allergy prevalence and causative agents. However, there is an evident lack of literature on emergency action plans and school training programs. Existing governmental policies regarding school anaphylaxis were reviewed and compared. Hong Kong currently lacks legal protection for bystanders and policies, encouraging school staff training for anaphylaxis management. Governmental regulations and subsidization are also absent in encouraging schools to purchase backup stocks of unassigned epinephrine autoinjectors. Raising awareness and improving guidelines and policies in schools are integral in the management of food-induced adverse events and anaphylaxis. Governmental support through policymaking and legislation can significantly enhance and hasten the process, thus minimizing the impact adverse food reactions bring to the pediatric population.
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